PENNSYLVANIA - DRUGS

January 1, 2008

Pennsylvania state laws and regulations that affect your medical practice

1. What is the definition of a "prescription?"

The term "prescription" or "prescription order" means an order for a controlled substance, other drug, or device for medication which is dispensed to an ultimate user. It does not include an immediate administration order such as an order to dispense a drug to a bed patient in a hospital.

28 PA ADC § 25.51

(a) A prescription for a controlled substance must be issued for a legitimate medical purpose by a licensed practitioner in the usual course of professional practice. The responsibility for proper prescribing of controlled substances is upon the practitioner but a corresponding responsibility rests with the pharmacist who dispenses the medication and interprets the directions of the prescriber to the patient.

(b) A prescription may not be issued by a practitioner to obtain controlled substances for use in his routine office practice nor for general dispensing to his patients.

( c ) A prescription may not be issued for the dispensing of controlled substances listed in any schedule to a drug dependent person for the purpose of continuing his dependence upon such drugs, nor in the course of conducting an authorized clinical investigation in a narcotic dependency rehabilitation program.

28 PA ADC § 25.52

3. What are the minimum standards for prescribing, administering and dispensing controlled substances?

A person licensed to practice medicine and surgery in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania or otherwise licensed or regulated by the Board, when prescribing, administering or dispensing controlled substances, shall carry out, or cause to be carried out, the following minimum standards:

(a) Initial medical history and physical examination unless emergency circumstances justify otherwise. Alternatively, medical history and physical examination information recorded by another health care provider may be considered if the medical history was taken and the physical examination was conducted within the immediately preceding 30 days. The physical examination shall include an evaluation of the heart, lungs, blood pressure and body functions that relate to the patient's specific complaint.

(b) Reevaluations. Among the factors to be considered in determining the number and frequency of follow-up evaluations that should be recommended to the patient are the condition diagnosed, the controlled substance involved, expected results and possible side effects. For chronic conditions, periodic follow-up evaluations shall be recommended to monitor the effectiveness of the controlled substance in achieving the intended results.

( c ) Patient counseling. Appropriate counseling shall be given to the patient regarding the condition diagnosed and the controlled substance prescribed, administered or dispensed. Unless the patient is in an inpatient care setting, the patient shall be specifically counseled about dosage levels, instructions for use, frequency and duration of use and possible side effects.

(d) Medical records. Information pertaining to the prescription, administration or dispensation of a controlled substance shall be entered in the medical records of the patient. This information shall include the name of the controlled substance, its strength, the quantity and the date it was prescribed, administered or dispensed. On the initial occasion when a controlled substance is prescribed, the medical record shall also include a specification of the symptoms observed and reported, the diagnosis of the condition for which the controlled substance is being given and the directions given to the patient for the use of the controlled substance. If the same controlled substance continues to be prescribed, the medical record shall reflect changes in the symptoms observed and reported, in the diagnosis of the condition for which the controlled substance is being given and in the directions given to the patient.

(e) Emergency prescriptions. In the case of an emergency phone call by a known patient, a prudent, short-term prescription for a controlled substance may be issued. Neither a refill nor a consecutive issuance of this emergency prescription may be given unless a physical examination and evaluation of the patient are first conducted. The results of this examination and evaluation shall be set forth in the patient's medical record together with the diagnosis of the condition for which the controlled substance is being prescribed. An emergency oral prescription for a Schedule II controlled substance shall be covered by a written prescription delivered to the pharmacist within 72 hours.

49 PA ADC §16.92

4. What information must be included on prescriptions?

(a) Prescription orders may be written on prescription blanks or may be oral, if allowed by law.

(b) If prescriptions are issued in writing, the bottom of every prescription blank shall be imprinted with the words "substitution permissible" and shall contain one signature line for the physician's or other authorized prescriber's signature. The prescriber's signature shall validate the prescription, and unless the prescriber handwrites "brand necessary" or "brand medically necessary" shall designate approval of approval of substitution of a drug by a pharmacist.

Imprinted conspicuously on the prescription blanks shall be the words: IN ORDER FOR A BRAND NAME PRODUCT TO BE DISPENSED, THE PRESCRIBER MUST HANDWRITE "BRAND NECESSARY" OR "BRAND MEDICALLY NECESSARY" IN THE SPACE BELOW.

Information printed on the prescription blank shall be in 8 point, upper-case print.

( c ) If prescription orders are given orally, substitution is permissible unless the prescriber expressly indicates to the pharmacist that the brand name drug is necessary and that substitution is not allowed.

(d) Prescriptions for controlled substances shall be written in indelible ink, indelible pencil or typewriter and shall include the following information:

(1) the date of issue;

(2) the name and address of the patient;

(3) directions for administration;

(4) the name, address and Federal Drug Enforcement Administration registration number of the prescribing practitioner; and

(5) the signature of the prescribing practitioner.

(e) The Federal Drug Enforcement Administration registration number cannot be preprinted on the prescription form.

28 PA §25.53

5. How are controlled drugs categorized in Pennsylvania?

Schedule I:

Schedule I substances have the following characteristics: a high potential for abuse; no currently accepted medical use in the United States; and a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. The following controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(1) The following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, unless specifically excepted whenever the existence of the isomers, esters, ethers, and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(a) Allylprodine.

(b) Alphacetylmethadol.

(c ) Alphameprodine.

(d) Alphamethadol.

(e) Alpha-methylfentanyl.

(f) Benzethidine.

(g) Betacetylmethadol.

(h) Betameprodine.

(i) Betamethadol.

(j) Betaprodine.

(k) Clonitazene.

(l) Dextromoramide.

(m) Dextrorphan (except its methylether).

(n) Diampromide.

(o) Diethylthiambutene.

(p) Dimenoxadol.

(q) Dimepheptanol.

(r) Dimethylthiambutene.

(s) Dioxaphetyl butyrate.

(t) Dipipanone.

(u) Ethylmethylthiambutene.

(v) Etonitazene.

(w) Etoxeridine.

(x) Furethidine.

(y) Hydroxypethidine.

(z) Ketobemidone.

(aa) Levomoramide.

(bb) Levophenacylmorphan.

(cc) Morpheridine.

(dd) Noracymethadol.

(ee) Norlevorphanol.

(ff) Normethadone.

(gg) Norpipanone.

(hh) Phenadoxone.

(ii) Phenampromide.

(jj) Phenomorphan.

(kk) Phenoperidine.

(ll) Piritramide.

(mm) Proheptazine.

(nn) Properidine.

(oo) Racemoramide.

(pp) Tilidine.

(qq) Trimeperidine.

(rr) 3-Methylfentanyl.

(ss) 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-4-Propionoxypiperidine (MPPP).

(tt) 1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-Phenyl-4-etyloxypiperidine (PEPAP).

(uu) Para-fluorofentanyl.

(vv) cetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl.

(ww) Alph-methylthiofentanyl.

(xx) Beta-hydroxyfentanyl.

(yy) 3 Methylthiofentanyl.

(zz) Thiofentanyl.

(aaa) Beta-hydroxy-3-methylfentanyl.

(2) The following opium derivatives, their salts, isomers and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of the salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(a) Acetorphine.

(b) Acetyldihydrocodeine.

(c ) Benzylmorphine.

(d) Codeine methylbromide.

(e) Codeine-N-Oxide.

(f) Cyprenorphine.

(g) Desomorphine.

(h) Dihydromorphine.

(i) Drotebanol.

(j) Etorphine.

(k) Heroin.

(l) Hydromorphinol.

(m) Methyldesorphine.

(n) Methylhydromorphine.

(o) Morphine methylbromide.

(p) Morphine methylsulfonate.

(q) Morphine-N-Oxide.

(r) Myrophine.

(s) Nicocodeine.

(t) Nicomorphine.

(u) Normorphine.

(v) Pholcodine.

(w) Thebacon.

(3) A material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of the salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(a) 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine.

(b) 5-methoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxy amphetamine.

(c) 3,4,5-trimethoxy amphetamine.

(d) Bufotenine.

(e) Diethyltryptamine.

(f) Dimethyltryptamine.

(g) 4-methyl-2, 5-dimethoxyamphetamine.

(h) Ibogaine.

(i) Lysergic acid diethylamide.

(j) Mescaline.

(k) Peyote.

(l) N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.

(m) N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate.

(n) Psilocybin.

(o) Psilocyn.

(p) Tetrahydrocannabinols.

(q) 3, 4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine.

(r) N-hydroxy-3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

(s) 2, 5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET).

(t) 4 Bromo 2, 5 Dimethoxyphenethylamine.

(4) Marijuana.

(5) 4-Bromo-2, 5 Dimethoxyamphetamine (4-Bromo, 2, 5 DMA).

(6) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, a material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances including the salts, isomers and salts of isomers:

(a) Fenethylline.

(b) N-ethylamphetamine.

(c) Methaqualone.

(d) Bromazepam.

(e) Camazepam.

(f) Clobazam.

(g) Clotiazepam.

(h) Cloxazolam.

(i) Delorazepam.

(j) Ethyl loflazepate.

(k) Fludiazepam.

(l) Flunitrazepam.

(m) Haloxazolam.

(n) Ketazolam.

(o) Loprazolam.

(p) Lormetazepam.

(q) Medazepam.

(r) Nimetazepam.

(s) Nitrazepam.

(t) Nordiazepam.

(u) Oxazolam.

(v) Pinazepam.

(w) Tetrazepam.

(x) 3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)

(y) 4-methylaminorex.

(z) Cathinone.

(aa) Methcathinone HCL.

(bb) Dimethylamphetamine.

(cc) 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) Piperazine (TFMPP)

(dd) N-Benzylpiperazine (BZP)

(ee) Alpha-Methyltryptamine (AMT)

(ff) 2-5 Dimethoxy-4-(N)-Propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7)

(gg) 5-Methoxy-N, N-Diisopropyltryptamine (5-MEO-DIPT)

Schedule II:

Schedule II substances have the following characteristics: a high potential for abuse; currently accepted medical use in the United States; or currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions and abuse may lead to severe psychic or physical dependence. The following controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(1) The following substances of any quantity, except those narcotics specifically excepted or listed in other schedules, whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by combination of extraction and chemical synthesis:

(a) Opium and opiate, and a salt, compound, derivative or preparation of opium or opiate.

(b) A salt, compound, derivative or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with the substances referred to in subparagraph (i) except that these substances may not include the isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.

(c) Opium poppy and poppy straw.

(d) Coca leaves and a salt, compound, derivative or preparation of coca leaves, and a salt, compound, derivative or preparation thereof which is chemically equivalent or identical with these substances, but may not include decocanized coca leaves or extracts of coca leaves, which extracts do not contain cocaine or ecgonine.

(2) The following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, of any quantity, unless specifically excepted or listed in another schedule, whenever the existence of the isomers, esters, ethers and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(a) Alphaprodine.

(b) Anileridine.

(c) Bezitramide.

(d) Dihydrocodeine.

(e) Diphenoxylate.

(f) Fentanyl.

(g) Isomethadone.

(h) Levomethorphan.

(i) Levorphanol.

(j) Metazocine.

(k) Methadone.

(l) Methadone-Intermediate, 4-cyano-2-dimethylamino-4, 4-diphenyl butane.

(m Moramide-Intermediate, 2-methyl-3-morpholino-1, 1-diphenylpropane-carboxylicacid.

(n) Pethidine.

(o) Pethidine-Intermediate-A, 4-cyano-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine.

(p) Pethidine-Intermediate-B, ethyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylate.

(q) Pethidine-Intermediate-C, 1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid.

(r) Phenazocine.

(s) Piminodine.

(t) Propiram.

(u) Racemethorphan.

(v) Racemorphan.

(w) Sufentanil.

(x) Alfentanil.

(y) Carfentanil.

(z) Levo-Alpha Acetyl-Methadol.

(3) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, a material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances:

(a) Amphetamine, its salts, optical isomers and salts of its optical isomers.

(b) Phenmetrazine and its salts.

(c) Methylphenidate.

(d) Methamphetamine including its salts, isomers and salts of isomers.

(e) Phenylacetone.

(f) Nabilone.

(g) Glutethimide.

(4) The phrase 'opiates' may not include the dextrorotatory isomer of 3-methoxy-n-methylmorphinan and its salts, but does include its racemic and levorotatory forms.

(5) A material, compound, mixture or preparation, unless specifically excepted, which contains a quantity of:

(a) Phencyclidine.

(b) 1-phenylcyclohexylamine.

(c) 1-piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile.

(d) Nabilone.

(6) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances, including its salts, isomers and salts of isomers whenever the existence of the salts, isomers and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(a) Amobarbital.

(b) Secobarbital.

(c) Pentobarbital.

Schedule III:

Schedule III substances have the following characteristics: a potential for abuse less than the substances listed in Schedules I and II; well documented and currently accepted medical use in the United States; and abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence. The following classes of controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(1) A material, compound, mixture or preparation unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule which contains any quantity of the following substances:

(a) A substance which contains any quantity of a derivative of barbituric acid, or a salt of a derivative of barbituric acid.

(b) Chorhexadol.

(c) Lysergic acid.

(d) Lysergic acid amide.

(e) Methyprylon.

(f) Sulfondiethylmethane.

(g) Sulfonethylmethane.

(h) Sulfonmethane.

(2) Nalorphine.

(3) A material, compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of the following narcotic drugs, or salts thereof, unless specifically excepted or listed in other schedules.

(a) Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with an equal or greater quantity of an isoquinoline alkaloid of opium.

(b) Not more than 1.8 grams of codeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(c) Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with a fourfold or greater quantity of an isoquinolene alkaloid of opium.

(d) Not more than 300 milligrams of dihydrocodeinone per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(e) Not more than 1.8 grams of dihydrocodeine per 100 milliliters or not more than 90 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(f) Not more than 300 milligrams of ethylmorphine per 100 milliliters or not more than 15 milligrams per dosage unit, with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(g) Not more than 500 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams, or not more than 2.5 milligrams per dosage unit with one or more active, nonnarcotic ingredients in recognized therapeutic amounts.

(4) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, a material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances including its salts, isomers, whether optical position or geometric, and salts of the isomers whenever the existence of the salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation, Schedule III shall include the following:

(a) Benzphetamine.

(b) Chlorphentermine.

(c) Clortermine.

(d) Phendimetrazine.

(5) A compound, mixture or preparation or a salt thereof including one or more other active medicinal ingredients which are not listed in a schedule containing the following:

(a) Amobarbital.

(b) Secobarbital.

(c) Pentobarbital.

(6) A suppository dosage form or a salt thereof approved by the Food and Drug Administration for marketing only as a suppository containing the following:

(a) Amobarbital.

(b) Secobarbital.

(c) Pentobarbital.

(7) The Secretary may, by regulation, except a compound, mixture, or preparation containing a drug or controlled substance listed in this schedule from the application of those provisions of the act covering controlled substances, if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains one or more active medicinal ingredients not having a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system; provided, that the admixtures shall be included therein in the combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration as to vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances which do have a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system.

(8) The Secretary will, by regulation, exempt a nonnarcotic substance from the control under the act if the substance may, under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.A. § 301 et seq.), be lawfully sold over the counter without a prescription.

(9) A material, compound, mixture or preparation, unless specifically excepted, which contains a quantity of Dronabinol--synthetic--in sesame oil encapsulated in a soft gelatin capsule but only those drug products approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration.

(10) Buprenorphine.

Schedule IV:

Schedule IV substances have the following characteristics: a low potential for abuse relative to substances in Schedule III; currently accepted medical use in the United States; and limited physical or psychological dependence liability relative to the substances listed in Schedule III. The following controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(1) A material, compound, mixture or preparation, unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, which contains a quantity of the following substances:

(a) Barbital.

(b) Chloral betaine.

(c) Chloral hydrate.

(d) Ethchlorvynol.

(e) Ethinamate.

(f) Methohexital.

(g) Meprobamate.

(h) Methylphenobarbital.

(i) Paraldehyde.

(j) Petrichloral.

(k) Phenobarbital.

(l) Chlordiazepoxide.

(m) Diazepam.

(n) Oxazepam.

(o) Clorazepate.

(p) Flurazepam.

(q) Clonazepam.

(r) Mebutamate.

(s) Temazepam.

(t) Alprazolam.

(u) Halazepam.

(v) Triazolam.

(w) Midazolam.

(x) Quazepam.

(y) Estazolam.

(z) Zolpidem.

(2) A material, compound, mixture, or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substance including its salts, isomers whether optical position or geometric, and salts of the isomers, whenever the existence of the salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible:

(a) Fenfluramine.

(b) Pentazocine.

(c) Lorazepam.

(d) Prazepam.

(e) Dextropropoxyphene.

(3) Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, a material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following substances including its salts, isomers whether optical position or geometric, and salts of the isomers whenever the existence of the salts, isomers and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation:

(a) Diethylpropion.

(b) Phentermine.

(c) Pemoline.

(d) Mazindol.

(e) Pipradol.

(f) SPA (1-dimethylamino-1-2-diphenylethane).

(g) Cathine.

(h) Fencamfamin.

(i) Fenproporex.

(j) Mefenorex.

(k) Butorphanol.

(l) Sibutramine.

(4) The Secretary may, by regulation, except a compound, mixture, or preparation containing a drug or controlled dangerous substance listed in paragraph (1) from the application of those provisions of the act covering controlled drugs, if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains one or more active medicinal ingredients not having a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system; provided that the admixtures shall be included therein in combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration as to vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances which do have a stimulant or depressant effect on the central nervous system.

(5) The Secretary shall by regulation exempt a nonnarcotic substance from the control under the act if the substance may, under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C.A. § 301 et seq. ) be lawfully sold over the counter without a prescription.

(6) A compound, mixture, or preparation which purports to have a cough suppressant effect and which contains a limited quantity of the following narcotics or their salts, and which contains in addition one or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation, valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic alone shall be included under this schedule:

(a) Not more than 200 milligrams of codeine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams and not more than 10 milligrams per dosage unit.

(b) Not more than 100 milligrams of dihydrocodeine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams and not more than 5 milligrams per dosage unit.

(c) Not more than 100 milligrams of ethylmorphine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams and not more than 5 milligrams per dosage unit.

Schedule V:

Schedule V substances have the following characteristics: a low potential for abuse relative to the substances listed in Schedule IV; currently accepted medical use in the United States; and limited physical dependence or psychological dependence liability relative to the substances listed in Schedule IV. The following controlled substances are included in this schedule:

(1) A compound, mixture, or preparation containing limited quantities of any of the following narcotics or any of their salts, which shall include one or more nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients in sufficient proportion to confer upon the compound, mixture, or preparation, valuable medicinal qualities other than those possessed by the narcotic alone:

(a) Not more than 200 milligrams of codeine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams and not more than 10 milligrams per dosage unit.

(b) Not more than 100 milligrams of dihydrocodeine or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams and not more than 5 milligrams per dosage unit.

(c) Not more than 100 milligrams of ethylmorphine, or any of its salts, per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams and not more than 5 milligrams per dosage unit.

(d) Not more than 2.5 milligrams of diphenoxylate and not less than 25 micrograms of altropine sulfate per dosage unit.

(e) Not more than 100 milligrams of opium per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams, or not more than 5 milligrams per dosage unit.

(2) Propylhexadrine, except when labeled for over-the-counter drug sale in conformity with 21 CFR 1308.15 (relating to schedule V).

(3) Pyrovalerone.

35 P.S. § 780-104

6. What security controls should be used by practitioners with respect to controlled substances?

(a) Controlled substances listed in Schedule I shall be stored in substantially constructed, securely locked cabinets with access restricted to approved personnel.

(b) Controlled substances listed in Schedules II, III, IV and V shall be stored in substantially constructed, securely locked cabinets. However, pharmacies and practitioners may disperse the substances throughout the stocks of noncontrolled substances in a manner as to obstruct the theft or diversion of the substances.

28 PA ADC § 25.63

7. May Certified Registered Nurse Practitioners prescribe and dispense drugs?

A Certified Registered Nurse Practitioner (CRNP) may prescribe and dispense drugs if the following requirements are met:

(a) The CRNP has completed a CRNP program which is approved by the Boards or, if completed in another state, is equivalent to programs approved by the Boards.

(b) The CRNP has successfully completed at least 45 hours of course work specific to advanced pharmacology in accordance with the following:

(1) The course work in advanced pharmacology may be either part of CRNP education program or, if completed outside of the CRNP education program, an additional course or courses taken from an educational program or programs approved by the Boards.

(2) The course work shall be at an advanced level above a pharmacology course required by a professional nursing (RN) education program.

( c ) A CRNP who has prescriptive authority shall complete at least 16 hours of State Board of Nursing approved continuing education in pharmacology in the 2 years prior to the biennial renewal date of the CRNP certification. The CRNP shall show proof that the CRNP completed the continuing education when submitting a biennial renewal.

(d) In prescribing and dispensing drugs, a CRNP shall comply with standards of the State Board of Medicine and the Department of Health.

49 PA ADC § 21.283

8. May physician assistants administer controlled substances?

(a) In a hospital, medical care facility or office setting, the physician assistant may order or administer, or both, controlled substances and whole blood and blood components if the authority to order and administer these medications and fluids is expressly set forth in the written agreement.

(b) The physician assistant shall comply with minimum standards for ordering and administering controlled substances.

49 PA ADC § 18.157

Copyright Kern Augustine Conroy and Schoppmann, P.C. Used with permission.