Florida state laws and regulations that affect your medical practice
1. Until what stage in the pregnancy can termination be performed?
No termination of pregnancy shall be performed on any human being in the third trimester of pregnancy unless:
(a) Two physicians certify in writing to the fact that, to a reasonable degree of medical probability, the termination of pregnancy is necessary to save the life or preserve the health of the pregnant woman; or
F.S.A. § 390.0111
2. Who is authorized to perform a termination of pregnancy?
No termination of pregnancy shall be performed at any time except by a physician.
F.S.A. § 390.0111
3. Is informed consent required prior to termination of pregnancy?
Yes. A termination of pregnancy may not be performed or induced except with the voluntary and informed written consent of the pregnant woman or, in the case of a mental incompetent, the voluntary and informed written consent of her court-appointed guardian.
(a) Except in the case of a medical emergency, consent to a termination of pregnancy is voluntary and informed only if:
(1) The physician who is to perform the procedure, or the referring physician, has, at a minimum, orally, in person, informed the woman of:
a. The nature and risks of undergoing or not undergoing the proposed procedure that a reasonable patient would consider material to making a knowing and willful decision of whether to terminate a pregnancy.
b. The probable gestational age of the fetus at the time the termination of the pregnancy is to be performed.
c. The medical risks to the woman and fetus of carrying the pregnancy to term.
(2) Printed materials prepared and provided by the department have been provided to the pregnant woman, if she chooses to view these materials, including:
a. A description of the fetus.
b. A list of agencies that offer alternatives to terminating the pregnancy.
c. Detailed information on the availability of medical assistance benefits for prenatal care, childbirth and neonatal care.
(3) The woman acknowledges in writing, before the termination of pregnancy, that the information required to be provided under this subsection has been provided. Nothing in this paragraph is intended to prohibit a physician from providing any additional information which the physician deems material to the woman's informed decision to terminate her pregnancy.
(b) In the event a medical emergency exists and a physician cannot comply with the requirements for informed consent, a physician may terminate a pregnancy if he or she has obtained at least one corroborative medical opinion attesting to the medical necessity for emergency medical procedures and to the fact that to a reasonable degree of medical certainty the continuation of the pregnancy would threaten the life of the pregnant woman. In the event no second physician is available for a corroborating opinion, the physician may proceed but shall document reasons for the medical necessity in the patient's medical records.
( c ) Violation of this subsection by a physician constitutes grounds for disciplinary action. Substantial compliance or reasonable belief that complying with the requirements of informed consent would threaten the life or health of the patient is a defense to any action brought under this paragraph.
F.S.A. § 390.0111
4. What standards of care are applicable in the case of termination performed during viability?
If a termination of pregnancy is performed during viability, no person who performs or induces the termination of pregnancy shall fail to use that degree of professional skill, care, and diligence to preserve the life and health of the fetus which such person would be required to exercise in order to preserve the life and health of any fetus intended to be born and not aborted. "Viability" means that stage of fetal development when the life of the unborn child may with a reasonable degree of medical probability be continued indefinitely outside the womb. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the woman's life and health shall constitute an overriding and superior consideration to the concern for the life and health of the fetus when such concerns are in conflict.
F.S.A. § 390.0111
5. Does Florida permit partial-birth abortions?
(a) Partial-birth abortions are prohibited. No physician shall knowingly perform a partial-birth abortion.
(b) A woman upon whom a partial-birth abortion is performed may not be prosecuted under this section for conspiracy to violate the provisions of this section.
( c ) This subsection shall not apply to a partial-birth abortion that is necessary to save the life of a mother whose life is endangered by a physical disorder, illness, or injury, provided that no other medical procedure would suffice for that purpose.
F.S.A. § 390.0111
6. May a fetus be used for scientific experimentation?
No person shall use any live fetus or live, premature infant for any type of scientific, research, laboratory, or other kind of experimentation either prior to or subsequent to any termination of pregnancy procedure except as necessary to protect or preserve the life and health of such fetus or premature infant.
F.S.A. § 390.0111
7. May a physician refuse to participate in a termination procedure?
Yes. No hospital or person is obligated to perform the termination of pregnancy, nor shall any hospital or any person be liable for such refusal. No person who is a member of, or associated with, the staff of a hospital, nor any employee of a hospital or physician in which or by whom the termination of pregnancy has been authorized or performed, who shall state an objection to such procedure on moral or religious grounds shall be required to participate in the procedure which will result in the termination of pregnancy. The refusal of any such person or employee to participate shall not form the basis for any disciplinary or other recriminatory action against such person.
F.S.A. § 390.0111
8. Is parental notification required before a minor undergoes a termination of pregnancy?
Florida's Parental Notice of Abortion Act requires parental notification before a minor may obtain an abortion but allows for judicial waiver of the required notification. A "minor" is a person under the age of 18 years.
(a) Actual notice shall be provided by the physician performing or inducing the termination of pregnancy before the performance or inducement of the termination of the pregnancy of a minor. The notice may be given by a referring physician. The physician who performs or induces the termination of pregnancy must receive the written statement of the referring physician certifying that the referring physician has given notice. If actual notice is not possible after a reasonable effort has been made, the physician performing or inducing the termination of pregnancy or the referring physician must give constructive notice.
Notice given under this subsection by the physician performing or inducing the termination of pregnancy must include the name and address of the facility providing the termination of pregnancy and the name of the physician providing notice. Notice given under this subsection by a referring physician must include the name and address of the facility where he or she is referring the minor and the name of the physician providing notice. If actual notice is provided by telephone, the physician must actually speak with the parent or guardian, and must record in the minor's medical file the name of the parent or guardian provided notice, the phone number dialed, and the date and time of the call. If constructive notice is given, the physician must document that notice by placing copies of any document related to the constructive notice, including, but not limited to, a copy of the letter and the return receipt, in the minor's medical file.
(b) Notice is not required if:
1. In the physician's good faith clinical judgment, a medical emergency exists and there is insufficient time for the attending physician to comply with the notification requirements. If a medical emergency exists, the physician may proceed but must document reasons for the medical necessity in the patient's medical records;
2. Notice is waived in writing by the person who is entitled to notice;
3. Notice is waived by the minor who is or has been married or has had the disability of nonage removed;
4. Notice is waived by the patient because the patient has a minor child dependent on her; or
5. Notice is waived by court order.
( c ) Procedures for judicial waiver of notice:
1. A minor may petition any circuit court in a judicial circuit in which she resides for a waiver of the parental notice requirements and may participate in proceedings on her own behalf. The petition may be filed under a pseudonym or through the use of initials, as provided by court rule. The petition must include a statement that the petitioner is pregnant and notice has not been waived. The court shall advise the minor that she has a right to court-appointed counsel and shall provide her with counsel upon her request at no cost to the minor.
2. Court proceedings under this subsection must be given precedence over other pending matters to the extent necessary to ensure that the court reaches a decision promptly. The court shall rule, and issue written findings of fact and conclusions of law, within 48 hours after the petition is filed, except that the 48-hour limitation may be extended at the request of the minor. If the court fails to rule within the 48-hour period and an extension has not been requested, the petition is granted and the notice requirement is waived.
3. If the court finds, by clear and convincing evidence, that the minor is sufficiently mature to decide whether to terminate her pregnancy, the court shall issue an order authorizing the minor to consent to the performance or inducement of a termination of pregnancy without the notification of a parent or guardian. If the court does not make these findings, it must dismiss the petition.
4. If the court finds, by a preponderance of the evidence, that there is evidence of child abuse or sexual abuse of the petitioner by one or both of her parents or guardian, or that the notification of a parent or guardian is not in the best interest of the petitioner, the court shall issue an order authorizing the minor to consent to the performance or inducement of a termination of pregnancy without the notification of a parent or guardian. If the court finds evidence of child abuse or sexual abuse of the minor petitioner by any person, the court shall report the evidence of child abuse or sexual abuse of the petitioner. If the court does not make these findings, it must dismiss the petition.
5. A court that conducts proceedings under this section shall provide for a written transcript of all testimony and proceedings and issue written and specific factual findings and legal conclusions supporting its decision and shall order that a confidential record be maintained. At the hearing, the court shall hear evidence relating to the emotional development, maturity, intellect and understanding of the minor, and all other relevant evidence. All hearings under this section, including appeals, shall remain confidential and closed to the public.
6. An expedited appeal shall be available to any minor to whom the circuit court denies a waiver of notice. An order authorizing a termination of pregnancy without notice is not subject to appeal.
7. No filing fees or court costs shall be required of any pregnant minor who petitions a court for a waiver of parental notification.
F.S.A. § 390.0111
9. What is the procedure for reporting the termination of pregnancies?
(a) The director of any medical facility in which any pregnancy is terminated shall submit a monthly report which contains the number of procedures performed, the reason for same, and the period of gestation at the time such procedures were performed to the agency. The agency shall be responsible for keeping such reports in a central place from which statistical data and analysis can be made.
(b) If the termination of pregnancy is not performed in a medical facility, the physician performing the procedure shall be responsible for reporting such information.
( c ) Reports submitted pursuant to this section shall be confidential and shall not be revealed except upon court order.
(d) Any person required under this section to file a report or keep any records who willfully fails to file such report or keep such records may be subject to a $200 fine for each violation.
F.S.A. § 390.0112
Copyright Kern Augustine Conroy and Schoppmann, P.C. Used with permission.